Jak/Stat: IL-6 receptor family

JAK stands for Janus kinase. This is a family of intracellular, nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that transduce cytokine-mediated signals via the JAK-STAT pathway. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway transmits information from chemical signals, through STAT activation, into gene promoters on the DNA activating the DNA transcription.  

Apoptosis signaling

Apoptosis signaling pathways: Regulation of Apoptosis Overview. Inhibition of Apoptosis. Death receptor signaling. Mitochondrial control of apoptosis.

Chromatin regulation

Chormatin regualtion: Histone Lysine Methylation. Protein Acetylation. Examples of crosstalk between post-translational modifications.    

Histone methylation

Histones have been shown to be dynamic proteins, undergoing multiple types of post-translational modifications. In this pathway presented by Cell signaling you will find a brief description of the main histone modifications, both in the transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin.


Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are a family of protein kinases involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell movement, and cell death. MAPK signaling cascades are organized hierarchically where: -MAPKs are phosphorylated and activated by MAPK-kinases (MAPKKs), -MAPKKs are phosphorylated and activated by MAPKK-kinases (MAPKKKs). -MAPKKKs are in turn activated by interaction with the family of …

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The TGF-beta 1 (Transforming growth factor beta) is the first member of a large group of proteins included in the TGF-beta superfamily. This superfamily includes the activin/inhibin family, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth differentiation factors (GDFs) and the TGF-beta subfamily. Members of the TGF-beta superfamily interact with cell surface protein kinase receptors to activate Smad …

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The Akt cascade works through receptor tyrosine kinases, integrins, B and T cell receptors, cytokine receptors, G protein coupled receptors and other stimuli that induce the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphates (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). There are three highly related isoforms of Akt (Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3), being the major signaling arm of PI3K.